How will these resources help you?
The voice of the gladiator
by Robert Knapp, published by Profile Books, (2013), 9781846684029
The lives of ‘invisible people’ are brought to life by the author’s use of striking quotes from a range of sometimes unusual sources including the New Testament, graffiti, Egyptian papyri, gravestone epitaphs and texts relating to medicine, magic, astrology and dream interpretation. In Chapter 8: Fame and Death: Gladiators, Knapp outlines the violent demographics of the arena – the Greco-Roman eagerness for brutal death as entertainment. Overall, however, he takes a positive view of a gladiator’s life. It could bring freedom for a slave and social esteem to a volunteer who took the famous oath to be ‘burned, bound, beaten and slain by the sword’. Graffiti from Pompeii outlines the rewards of success: ‘Celadus, one of Octavius’ Thracian gladiators, fought and won three times. The girls swoon over him.
Evidence for female gladiators
Female Gladiators In Ancient Rome
by Joshua J. Mark, published by Ancient History Encyclopedia, (2018)
Conflicting evidence for Dover Street Woman
by Heather Pringle and Julian Broad, published by Discover Magazine, (2001)
The World of Gladiators
Gladiator: The Roman Fighter's (Unofficial) Manual
by Philip Matyszak, published by Thames and Hudson, (2011), 9780500051672
Europe: A Natural History - Roman entertainment
published by BBC, (2007)
Text © Peter Hepplewhite, 2020.